Overturning Italy’s Article 18: Exogenous and endogenous pressures, and role of the state

Tod Rutherford, Lorenzo Frangi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Since 1970 Article 18 provided important employment protection for workers in larger firms in Italy. Its core aspect (i.e. reinstatement in the case of unfair dismissal) was recently overturned by the Jobs Act for employees hired after its approval. To explain Article 18’s abolition, the authors assess the explicative power of (1) stronger exogenous pressures from economic international institutions, and (2) weaker endogenous pressures from unions and business organizations. Documentary analyses and semi-structured interviews with key informants reveal that while these two forces are critical, they tend to ‘read off’ the state policy decision making role, which, the authors argue, is central to explaining the overturning of Article 18.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)439-457
Number of pages19
JournalEconomic and Industrial Democracy
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 1 2018


  • Article 18
  • Italy
  • Jobs Act
  • employment protection legislation
  • trade unions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Business, Management and Accounting
  • Strategy and Management
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
  • Management of Technology and Innovation


Dive into the research topics of 'Overturning Italy’s Article 18: Exogenous and endogenous pressures, and role of the state'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this