Optimal foraging and fitness in Columbian ground squirrels

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56 Scopus citations


Optimal diets were determined for each of 109 individual Columbian ground squirrels (Spermophilus columbianus) at two sites in northwestern Montana. Body mass, daily activity time, and vegetation consumption rates for individuals were measured in the field, along with the average water content of vegetation at each ground squirrel colony. I also measured stomach and caecal capacity and turnover rate of plant food through the digestive tract for individuals in the laboratory to construct regressions of digestive capacity as a function of individual body mass. Finally, I obtained literature estimates of average daily energy requirements as a function of body mass and digestible energy content of vegetation. These data were used to construct a linear programming diet model for each individual. The model for each individual was used to predict the proportion of two food types (monocots and dicots) that maximized daily energy intake, given time and digestive constraints on foraging. Individuals were classified as "optimal" or "deviating", depending on whether their observed diet was significantly different from their predicted optimal diet. I determined the consequences of selecting an optimal diet for energy intake and fitness. As expected, daily energy intake calculated for deviators (based on their observed diet proportion) was less than that for optimal foragers. Deviating foragers do not appear to compensate for their lower calculated energy intake through other factors such as body size or physiological efficiency of processing food. Growth rate, yearly survivorship, and litter size increase with calculated energy intake, and optimal foragers have six times the reproductive success of deviators by age three. Optimal foraging behavior, therefore, appears to confer a considerable fitness advantage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)56-67
Number of pages12
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1990
Externally publishedYes


  • Energy intake
  • Fitness
  • Ground squirrels
  • Growth rate
  • Optimal foraging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics


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