## Abstract

Let (M, d) be a metric space. For 0 < r < R, let G(p, r, R) be the group obtained by considering all loops based at a point p M whose image is contained in the closed ball of radius r and identifying two loops if there is a homotopy between them that is contained in the open ball of radius R. In this article we study the asymptotic behavior of the G(p, r, R) groups of complete open manifolds of nonnegative Ricci curvature. We also find relationships between the G(p, r, R) groups and tangent cones at infinity of a metric space and show that any tangent cone at infinity of a complete open manifold of nonnegative Ricci curvature and small linear diameter growth is its own universal cover.

Original language | English (US) |
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Pages (from-to) | 535-550 |

Number of pages | 16 |

Journal | Journal of Geometric Analysis |

Volume | 16 |

Issue number | 3 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 2006 |

Externally published | Yes |

## Keywords

- Ricci curvature
- asymptotically polar
- fundamental group
- noncompact manifold
- ray density

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Geometry and Topology