Using ecocultural theory as a guide, the authors observed some everyday activities of mothers and fathers with children for 2 hr in the home in 53 families residing in Chaing Mai Province in northern Thailand. Teachers provided assessments of children's general social skills in preschool using the Preschool Kindergarten Behavior Scale (K. W. Merrell, 1994). Mothers were significantly more likely to engage in basic care, general conversations, and educational activities; to praise; and to use commands and reasoning as forms of discipline with children than fathers. Mothers and fathers did not significantly differ in the display of affection, teasing or joking, and modes of play interactions with children. Parents generally treated boys and girls similarly. Few associations between parent-child involvement and children's social skills in preschool were significant. Data are discussed with respect to changes in culturally driven parent-child practices.
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