Modulation of Emotional and Nonemotional Memories: Same Pharmacological Systems, Different Neuroanatomical Systems

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


This chapter integrates and organizes pharmacological studies of memory by searching for generalizations or "rules" about the roles of hormonal and neurotransmitter systems in the regulation of learning and memory processes. In doing so, it is important to examine carefully the extent to which these generalizations are similar and different for results obtained with systemic injections and those obtained with direct brain injections. Consistently, systemic injections of epinephrine or of glucose, which may contribute to epinephrine effects on memory, enhance memory when administered near the time of training. Similarly, systemically administered drugs that promote the functions of central cholinergic, glutaminergic, or noradrenergic systems enhance memory on later tests. Moreover, diminished release of the neurotransmitters or pharmacological blockade of their receptors can impair memory. There also appear to be some neurochemical systems, for example, opioid and GABA, for which activation impairs, and inactivation enhances, learning and memory.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationBrain and Memory: Modulation and Mediation of Neuroplasticity
PublisherOxford University Press
ISBN (Print)9780199847877, 9780195082944
StatePublished - Mar 22 2012
Externally publishedYes



  • Epinephrine
  • GABA
  • Glucose
  • Learning
  • Memory
  • Neurotransmitters
  • Noradrenergic systems
  • Opioid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)

Cite this