Mitigating Interfacial Mismatch between Lithium Metal and Garnet-Type Solid Electrolyte by Depositing Metal Nitride Lithiophilic Interlayer

Abiral Baniya, Ashim Gurung, Jyotshna Pokharel, Ke Chen, Rajesh Pathak, Buddhi Sagar Lamsal, Nabin Ghimire, Raja Sekhar Bobba, Sheikh Ifatur Rahman, Sally Mabrouk, Alevtina L. Smirnova, Kang Xu, Quinn Qiao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Solid-state lithium batteries are generally considered as the next-generation battery technology that benefits from inherent nonflammable solid electrolytes and safe harnessing of high-capacity lithium metal. Among various solid-electrolyte candidates, cubic garnet-type Li7La3Zr2O12 ceramics hold superiority due to their high ionic conductivity (10-3 to 10-4 S cm-1) and good chemical stability against lithium metal. However, practical deployment of solid-state batteries based on such garnet-type materials has been constrained by poor interfacing between lithium and garnet that displays high impedance and uneven current distribution. Herein, we propose a facile and effective strategy to significantly reduce this interfacial mismatch by modifying the surface of such garnet-type solid electrolyte with a thin layer of silicon nitride (Si3N4). This interfacial layer ensures an intimate contact with lithium due to its lithiophilic nature and formation of an intermediate lithium-metal alloy. The interfacial resistance experiences an exponential drop from 1197 to 84.5 ω cm2. Lithium symmetrical cells with Si3N4-modified garnet exhibited low overpotential and long-term stable plating/stripping cycles at room temperature compared to bare garnet. Furthermore, a hybrid solid-state battery with Si3N4-modified garnet sandwiched between lithium metal anode and LiFePO4 cathode was demonstrated to operate with high cycling efficiency, excellent rate capability, and good electrochemical stability. This work represents a significant advancement toward use of garnet solid electrolytes in lithium metal batteries for the next-generation energy storage devices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)648-657
Number of pages10
JournalACS Applied Energy Materials
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 24 2022


  • interfacial resistance
  • lithium/garnet interface
  • silicon nitride
  • solid-state batteries
  • solid-state electrolytes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Electrochemistry


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