Mind Full or Mindfulness: Equine facilitated psychotherapy for female veterans

Aviva Vincent, Isabel Ballard, Kathleen Farkas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study aimed to explore the assets and challenges of partnering with equines for female Veterans seeking to increase aspects of mindfulness that can be applied daily. Three measures (Toronto Mindfulness Scale, Mindfulness Survey, and Program Evaluation) were administered to participants to assess self-identified mindfulness pre- and post-equine intervention. The Mindfulness Survey responses pre-intervention ranged from 2.3 to 6.5 with a response range of 0 to 10 (M = 4.59, SD = 1.29). The post-intervention Survey responses ranged from 6.7 to 9.2 (M = 8.2, SD = 0.69). A paired sample t-test found a significant difference in the scores from pre-intervention to post-intervention conditions (t= −9.43, df = 13, p< .001). The evaluation responses included positive feedback specific to the activities of grooming and Breathe With. A participant noted, “The horses have taught me a lot about myself”; a common theme across respondents. The Veterans demonstrated a significant increase in self-identified Mindfulness throughout the duration of the equine intervention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalComplementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
StatePublished - 2021


  • Veteran
  • mindfulness
  • equine facilitated therapy
  • veterinary social work


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