Meta-Analysis of Mindfulness-Based Program Soles of the Feet for Disruptive Behaviors

Joshua C. Felver, Adam J. Clawson, Tory L. Ash, Brian K. Martens, Qiu Wang, Nirbhay N. Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Mindfulness-based programs are a promising intervention modality for reducing disruptive behavior, and Soles of the Feet (SOF) is one program that teaches internal awareness of personal events (e.g., unpleasant emotions) and a self-regulation strategy to decrease disruptive behaviors. This study conducted a meta-analysis of single-case research design (SCRD) studies that implemented SOF to decrease disruptive behaviors. Existing SOF studies were evaluated using high-quality SCRD standards, resulting in 15 studies included in the analysis (49 participants; mean age 23.12 years (SD = 15.87); highly heterogeneous backgrounds). Studies were analyzed to calculate effect sizes using Tau-U, an innovative non-parametric statistical approach for estimating effect sizes in SCRD studies. The aggregated weighted Tau-U effect size of SOF across all studies was −0.87. Moderator analyses indicated SOF’s effectiveness was robust across participant characteristics and delivery formats. This meta-analysis suggests that SOF is a moderately effective evidence-based practice for reducing disruptive behavior.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1488-1516
Number of pages29
JournalBehavior Modification
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2022


  • disruptive behavior
  • meta-analysis
  • mindfulness
  • single-case research design
  • soles of the feet

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)


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