## Abstract

In this paper we describe a method for simultaneously estimating the direction of arrival (DOA) of the signal along with its unknown frequency. In a typical DOA estimation problem it is often assumed that all the signals are arriving at the antenna array at the same frequency which is assumed to be known. The antenna elements in the array are then placed half wavelength apart at the frequency of operation. However, in practice seldom all the signals arrive at the antenna array at a single pre-specified frequency, but at different frequencies. The question then is what to do when there are signals at multiple frequencies, which are unknown. This paper presents an extension of the matrix pencil method to simultaneously estimate the DOA along with the operating frequency of each of the signals. This novel approach involves approximating the voltages that are induced in a three-dimensional antenna array, by a sum of complex exponentials by jointly estimating the direction of arrival (both azimuth and elevation angles) along with the carrier frequencies of multiple far-field sources impinging on the array by using the three-dimensional matrix pencil method. The matrix pencil method is a direct data domain method for approximating a function by a sum of complex exponentials in the presence of noise. The variances of the estimates computed by the matrix pencil method are quite close to the Cramer-Rao bound. Finally, we illustrate how to carry out the broadband DOA estimation procedure using realistic antenna elements located in a conformal array. Some numerical examples are presented to illustrate the applicability of this methodology in the presence of noise. It is shown that the variance decreases as the SNR increases. The Cramer-Rao bound for the estimators are also provided to illustrate the accuracy and the computational efficiency of this new methodology.

Original language | English (US) |
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Pages (from-to) | 796-816 |

Number of pages | 21 |

Journal | Digital Signal Processing: A Review Journal |

Volume | 16 |

Issue number | 6 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Nov 2006 |

## Keywords

- 3-D matrix pencil method
- Angle of arrival estimation
- Broadband DOA estimation
- Conformal array
- DOA estimation
- Direction of arrival estimation
- Elevation angles and frequency estimation
- Estimation of frequency
- Matrix pencil method
- Simultaneous azimuth
- Wavelength estimation

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Signal Processing
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering