OBJECTIVE: Over half of American women of childbearing age have either obesity or overweight. Hence, maternal programming through diet is critical for prevention of diseases in the offspring. Clinical trials with fish oil (FO) report various health benefits; however, it remains unclear whether maternal and postnatal consumption of FO protects offspring from adverse effects of consuming a high-fat (HF) diet.
METHODS: Female mice were fed HF diets supplemented without (HF) or with FO from 8 weeks before pregnancy through lactation. A low-fat (LF) diet was included as a control diet. After weaning, male offspring from HF or FO dams were either continued on their respective diet (HF-HF and FO-FO) or switched to the other diet (HF-FO and FO-HF) and compared with LF. Phenotypic and mechanistic studies were performed.
RESULTS: FO-FO offspring demonstrated significantly higher glucose clearance and insulin sensitivity compared with other pups fed the HF diet (P < 0.05). Furthermore, FO-FO pups had lower adiposity, inflammation, and fat deposition in the liver, consistent with reduced markers of hepatic lipogenesis and increased hepatic lipid oxidation.
CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of FO during pregnancy and early life is more beneficial than treating with FO either during pregnancy or in pups.
- Dietary Supplements/analysis
- Fish Oils/pharmacology
- Metabolism/drug effects
- Postnatal Care/methods