Long-term orientation: Implications for the entrepreneurial orientation and performance of family businesses

G. T. Lumpkin, Keith H. Brigham, Todd W. Moss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

416 Scopus citations


Long-term orientation (LTO), defined as the tendency to prioritize the long-range implications and impact of decisions and actions that come to fruition after an extended time period, is a common characteristic of many family businesses. Prior research is equivocal regarding whether an LTO contributes to or detracts from family firm outcomes. Of particular interest is the extent to which family business can be entrepreneurial given an LTO. Drawing on the concept of entrepreneurial orientation (EO), propositions that relate long- and short-term management time horizons of family firms to five dimensions of EO (innovativeness, proactiveness, risk taking, competitive aggressiveness and autonomy) are developed. Specifically, we propose that an LTO will be positively associated with innovativeness, proactiveness, and autonomy but negatively associated with risk taking and competitive aggressiveness. We also address the long- and short-term implications of EO on the performance of family firms, and identify issues to consider in future research into the EO-LTO relationship.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)241-264
Number of pages24
JournalEntrepreneurship and Regional Development
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - May 2010


  • Entrepreneurial orientation
  • Family business
  • Long-term orientation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Development
  • Economics and Econometrics


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