Learning in an Immersive VR Environment: Role of Learner Characteristics and Relations Between Learning and Psychological Outcomes

Xiaoxia Huang, Qin Zhao, Yang Liu, Desmond Harris, Melissa Shawler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

In an immersive virtual reality (IVR) environment, this study investigated: (1) the role of learner characteristics in various learning and psychological outcomes, including knowledge retention, perceived learning, cognitive load, self-efficacy, enjoyment, presence, and usefulness; and (2) the relationship among these intended outcomes. Forty adult participants experienced an IVR nature trail tour involving science learning topics, followed by a knowledge test and multiple surveys. Multivariate analysis of covariance results indicated age by gender interaction effects on perceived presence and usefulness as well as an age by IVR prior experience interaction effect on perceived presence. Additionally, multiple correlational relationships were detected among the intended outcomes. This study contributes to the limited research on the role of learner characteristics in STEM learning and psychological outcomes in IVR environments.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Educational Technology Systems
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 3 2023

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