Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Use, Addiction Potential, and Legal Status

Dessa K Bergen-Cico, Kendra MacClurg

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This chapter focuses on the resurgence of Kratom (. Mitragyna speciosa, mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine) use in Thailand and its emergence on the global market. Currently neither Kratom, mitragynine, nor other alkaloids from the M. speciosa plant are listed under the Schedules of the United Nations Drug Conventions; therefore, its legal status is independently established by each country, state, or region. However, M. speciosa, mitragynine, and 7-hydroxymitragynine are illegal or controlled in several European countries, many South East Asian countries, and some parts of the United States. The availability and trade of Kratom in Europe, Australia, and the United States emerged at the turn of the twenty-first century primarily through proliferation of information on the Internet about the drug coupled with Internet sales and global marketing of the drug. The use of Kratom in its more natural form as a plant preparation in its countries of origin is associated with lower addiction and health problems. However, the extraction of more potent and purified alkaloids has increased its addiction and abuse potential. Kratom is a unique drug in that at low doses it produces a stimulant effect; whereas at higher doses it has opiate-like effects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationGeneral Processes and Mechanisms, Prescription Medications, Caffeine and Areca, Polydrug Misuse, Emerging Addictions and Non-Drug Addictions
PublisherElsevier
Pages903-911
Number of pages9
Volume3
ISBN (Electronic)9780128006771
ISBN (Print)9780128006344
DOIs
StatePublished - May 13 2016

Fingerprint

Mitragyna
Jurisprudence
Alkaloids
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Internet
Opiate Alkaloids
Plant Preparations
United Nations
Thailand
Marketing
Appointments and Schedules
Health
mitragynine

Keywords

  • Kratom
  • Mitragyna speciosa
  • Mitragynine
  • Opiate
  • Stimulant

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Bergen-Cico, D. K., & MacClurg, K. (2016). Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Use, Addiction Potential, and Legal Status. In General Processes and Mechanisms, Prescription Medications, Caffeine and Areca, Polydrug Misuse, Emerging Addictions and Non-Drug Addictions (Vol. 3, pp. 903-911). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-800634-4.00089-5

Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Use, Addiction Potential, and Legal Status. / Bergen-Cico, Dessa K; MacClurg, Kendra.

General Processes and Mechanisms, Prescription Medications, Caffeine and Areca, Polydrug Misuse, Emerging Addictions and Non-Drug Addictions. Vol. 3 Elsevier, 2016. p. 903-911.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Bergen-Cico, DK & MacClurg, K 2016, Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Use, Addiction Potential, and Legal Status. in General Processes and Mechanisms, Prescription Medications, Caffeine and Areca, Polydrug Misuse, Emerging Addictions and Non-Drug Addictions. vol. 3, Elsevier, pp. 903-911. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-800634-4.00089-5
Bergen-Cico DK, MacClurg K. Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Use, Addiction Potential, and Legal Status. In General Processes and Mechanisms, Prescription Medications, Caffeine and Areca, Polydrug Misuse, Emerging Addictions and Non-Drug Addictions. Vol. 3. Elsevier. 2016. p. 903-911 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-800634-4.00089-5
Bergen-Cico, Dessa K ; MacClurg, Kendra. / Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Use, Addiction Potential, and Legal Status. General Processes and Mechanisms, Prescription Medications, Caffeine and Areca, Polydrug Misuse, Emerging Addictions and Non-Drug Addictions. Vol. 3 Elsevier, 2016. pp. 903-911
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