Knowing what is going on —a smart contract for modular construction

Gongfan Chen, Huaming Li, Min Liu, Simon M. Hsiang, Ashtad Jarvamardi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


This research aims to develop an automatic incentive–penalty enforcement system for modular construction. Smart contract rules were developed for a project of 120 prefabricated bath units. The results show that the smart contract can automatically enforce rewards and penalties for all 19 scenarios. The findings can help project managers detect and reject any inappropriate or malicious operations deviated from predefined rules efficiently. The results show that if the prefabricated bathroom unit fabricator can perform at the highest reliability level following the smart contract rules, the project can save 4.7% overall cost compared with the benchmark scenario. The findings will be beneficial to modular construction project by ensuring efficient monitoring, motivating reliable performance, and improving productivity and project documentation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)210-223
Number of pages14
JournalCanadian Journal of Civil Engineering
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2023


  • blockchain
  • construction payments
  • discrete event simulation
  • distributed file sharing
  • smart contract

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • General Environmental Science


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