Kindergarten teachers develop phoneme awareness in low-income, inner-city classrooms - Does it make a difference?

B. A. Blachman, E. W. Ball, R. S. Black, D. M. Tangel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

124 Scopus citations


Recent evidence suggests that training in phoneme awareness has a positive impact on beginning reading and spelling. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of instruction in phonological awareness provided in low-income, inner-city kindergarten classrooms by kindergarten teachers and their teaching assistants. Prior to the intervention, the 84 treatment children and 75 control children, who attended inner-city schools in an urban district in upstate New York, did not differ on age, sex, race, SES, PPVT-R score, phoneme segmentation, letter name knowledge, letter sound knowledge, or reading. After the 11 week intervention, the treatment children significantly outperformed the control children on measures of phoneme segmentation, letter name and letter sound knowledge, two of three reading measures, and a measure of invented spelling. Implications for improving beginning reading instruction are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-18
Number of pages18
JournalReading and Writing
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1994


  • Beginning reading
  • Kindergarten
  • Literacy
  • Phoneme awareness
  • Phoneme segmentation
  • Phonological awareness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Education
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Speech and Hearing


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