Investigating gender and racial/ethnic invariance in use of a course management system in higher education

Yi Li, Qiu Wang, John Campbell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


This study focused on learning equity in colleges and universities where teaching and learning depends heavily on computer technologies. The study used the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to investigate gender and racial/ethnic heterogeneity in the use of a computer based course management system (CMS). Two latent variables (CMS usage and scholastic aptitudes)—with two moderation covariates (gender and ethnicity)—were used to explore their associational relationships with students’ final grades. More than 990 students’ CMS data were collected from courses at a Midwest public university in the United States. The final model indicated that there was gender and racial/ethnic invariance in the use of the CMS. Additionally, CMS use was significantly positively associated with students’ academic achievement. These findings have policy and practical implications for understanding the correlation between technology use and academic achievement in colleges and universities. This study also pointed out future research directions for technology use in higher education.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)179-198
Number of pages20
JournalEducation Sciences
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2015


  • CMS
  • Gender/ethnicity inequity
  • Higher education
  • Technology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • General Computer Science
  • Education
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Public Administration
  • Computer Science Applications


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