Interfacial Study to Suppress Charge Carrier Recombination for High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells

Nirmal Adhikari, Ashish Dubey, Devendra Khatiwada, Abu Farzan Mitul, Qi Wang, Swaminathan Venkatesan, Anastasiia Iefanova, Jiantao Zai, Xuefeng Qian, Mukesh Kumar, Qiquan Qiao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

92 Scopus citations


We report effects of an interface between TiO2-perovskite and grain-grain boundaries of perovskite films prepared by single step and sequential deposited technique using different annealing times at optimum temperature. Nanoscale kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurement shows that charge transport in a perovskite solar cell critically depends upon the annealing conditions. The KPFM results of single step and sequential deposited films show that the increase in potential barrier suppresses the back-recombination between electrons in TiO2 and holes in perovskite. Spatial mapping of the surface potential within perovskite film exhibits higher positive potential at grain boundaries compared to the surface of the grains. The average grain boundary potential of 300-400 mV is obtained upon annealing for sequentially deposited films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra indicate the formation of a PbI2 phase upon annealing which suppresses the recombination. Transient analysis exhibits that the optimum device has higher carrier lifetime and short carrier transport time among all devices. An optimum grain boundary potential and proper band alignment between the TiO2 electron transport layer (ETL) and the perovskite absorber layer help to increase the overall device performance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)26445-26454
Number of pages10
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number48
StatePublished - Dec 9 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Kelvin probe force microscopy
  • back recombination
  • charge transport
  • interface engineering
  • perovskite film

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science


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