Integrating nonlinear analysis and machine learning for human induced pluripotent stem cell-based drug cardiotoxicity testing

Andrew Kowalczewski, Courtney Sakolish, Plansky Hoang, Xiyuan Liu, Sabir Jacquir, Ivan Rusyn, Zhen Ma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Utilizing recent advances in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology, nonlinear analysis and machine learning we can create novel tools to evaluate drug-induced cardiotoxicity on human cardiomyocytes. With cardiovascular disease remaining the leading cause of death globally it has become imperative to create effective and modern tools to test the efficacy and toxicity of drugs to combat heart disease. The calcium transient signals recorded from hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are highly complex and dynamic with great degrees of response characteristics to various drug treatments. However, traditional linear methods often fail to capture the subtle variation in these signals generated by hiPSC-CMs. In this work, we integrated nonlinear analysis, dimensionality reduction techniques and machine learning algorithms for better classifying the contractile signals from hiPSC-CMs in response to different drug exposure. By utilizing extracted parameters from a commercially available high-throughput testing platform, we were able to distinguish the groups with drug treatment from baseline controls, determine the drug exposure relative to IC50 values, and classify the drugs by its unique cardiac responses. By incorporating nonlinear parameters computed by phase space reconstruction, we were able to improve our machine learning algorithm's ability to predict cardiotoxic levels and drug classifications. We also visualized the effects of drug treatment and dosages with dimensionality reduction techniques, t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE). We have shown that integration of nonlinear analysis and artificial intelligence has proven to be a powerful tool for analyzing cardiotoxicity and classifying toxic compounds through their mechanistic action.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)732-743
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2022


  • artificial intelligence
  • cardiotoxicity
  • human induced pluripotent stem cells
  • machine learning
  • phase space reconstruction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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