Institutional Grammar 2.0: A specification for encoding and analyzing institutional design

Christopher K. Frantz, Saba Siddiki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Public affairs scholars have contributed rich insights on the role and outcomes of institutions in policy and administrative settings. They have offered numerous empirical studies of these topics, alongside concepts and theories that can be leveraged in their assessment. But there remains a relative dearth in attention to approaches that can be used to support rigorous assessments of institutional design itself—those that support reliable and nuanced representations of institutional structure and meaning. The Institutional Grammar (IG) is one such approach that has gained in prominence over the last decade. Existing applications validate the IG's utility toward rigorous assessments of institutional design, and highlight the IG's value in operationalizing concepts relevant in policy and administration scholarship. We build on existing IG research by presenting a revised specification IG 2.0 for encoding and analyzing institutional design that responds to representational necessities and analytical opportunities within and beyond policy and administrative domains.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)222-247
Number of pages26
JournalPublic Administration
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Public Administration


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