Inhibitory avoidance impairments induced by intra-amygdala propranolol are reversed by glutamate but not glucose

Robert C. Lennartz, Kristen L. Hellems, Evan R. Mook, Paul Ernest Gold

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Both systemic and central injections of glucose can enhance memory. For example, glucose reverses impairments on inhibitory avoidance resulting from intra-amygdala injections of morphine. The present experiment investigated the ability of glucose to reverse memory impairments resulting from intra- amygdala injections of propranolol, a β-noradrenergic antagonist. Pretraining administration of 10 μg propranolol significantly reduced inhibitory avoidance retention latencies but had no effect on performance in a spontaneous alternation task. Coadministration of glucose into the amygdala at 3 doses (1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 μg) did not reverse the propranolol-induced inhibitory avoidance deficits. However, coadministration of 2.5 μg of glutamate with the propranolol did reverse these deficits. The ability of glucose to reverse impairments following intra-amygdala injections of morphine but not propranolol may reflect the neurotransmitter system or systems through which glucose exerts its effects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1033-1039
Number of pages7
JournalBehavioral Neuroscience
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1996
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Clinical Psychology

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