Individual Differences in Self-Enhancement and Self-Protection Strategies: An Integrative Analysis

Erica G. Hepper, Richard H. Gramzow, Constantine Sedikides

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

112 Scopus citations

Abstract

Research has identified a large number of strategies that people use to self-enhance or self-protect. We aimed for an empirical integration of these strategies. Two studies used self-report items to assess all commonly recognized self-enhancement or self-protection strategies. In Study 1 (N=345), exploratory factor analysis identified 4 reliable factors. In Study 2 (N=416), this model was validated using confirmatory factor analysis. The factors related differentially to the key personality variables of regulatory focus, self-esteem, and narcissism. Expanding this integrative approach in the future can reveal a great deal about the structure and dynamics of self-enhancement and self-protection motivation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)781-814
Number of pages34
JournalJournal of Personality
Volume78
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology

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