There are gradations of poverty even in the poorest societies. This essay explores indicators that measure wealth differences between households in the same community. Ethnographic and other literature has been surveyed, to provide examples from major Third World areas. The most important single indicator is control of land, followed by other productive resources - capital equipment (tractors, ploughs), consumer durables, income (farm and non-farm) and livestock. Non-productive indicators include housing, consumer goods, fuel, ceremonial expenditure and diet. Methodological problems are examined, and the essay concludes with representative case studies that illustrate effective and specific use of indicators.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geography, Planning and Development
- Sociology and Political Science
- Economics and Econometrics