Increased X-ray visualization of shape memory polymer foams by chemical incorporation of iodine motifs

Landon D. Nash, Mary Beth Browning Monroe, Yong Hong Ding, Kendal P. Ezell, Anthony J. Boyle, Ramanathan Kadirvel, David F. Kallmes, Duncan J. Maitland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Shape memory polymers can be programmed into a secondary geometry and recovered to their primary geometry with the application of a controlled stimulus. Porous shape memory polymer foam scaffolds that respond to body temperature show particular promise for embolic medical applications. A limitation for the minimally invasive delivery of these materials is an inherent lack of X-ray contrast. In this work, a triiodobenzene containing a monomer was incorporated into a shape memory polymer foam material system to chemically impart X-ray visibility and increase material toughness. Composition and process changes enabled further control over material density and thermomechanical properties. The proposed material system demonstrates a wide range of tailorable functional properties for the design of embolic medical devices, including X-ray visibility, expansion rate, and porosity. Enhanced visualization of these materials can improve the acute performance of medical devices used to treat vascular malformations, and the material porosity provides a healing scaffold for durable occlusion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number381
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 20 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Medical device
  • Polymer foam
  • Shape memory polymer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics


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