Chemokines, a superfamily of chemotactic cytokines involved in recruitment, activation, and adhesion of a variety of leukocyte types to inflammatory foci, are a crucial component of the immune system of Sarcopterygiian vertebrates. Although all mammalian chemokines are believed to have been found, the status of these molecules in Actinopterygii was unknown until recently. The identification of chemokines in fish species has been complicated by low sequence conservation and confusion over expected numbers. Earlier discoveries of single fish chemokines coupled with rapidly expanding genetic resources in these species have recently provided a foundation for large-scale in silico discoveries of these important immune regulators. We report here the identification and expression analysis of 12 new CC chemokine sequences from catfish. When added to our previous report of 14 catfish CC chemokines, the number of CC chemokines in catfish now stands at 26, two more than known from humans. Establishing orthologous relationships among the majority of catfish CC chemokines, a newly available set of chicken CC chemokines, and their mammalian counterparts remain difficult, suggesting high levels of duplication and divergence within individual species.
- Innate immunity
ASJC Scopus subject areas