Importance of the CArG box in regulation of β-actin-encoding genes

Zhanjiang Liu, Boaz Moav, Anthony J. Faras, Kevin S. Guise, Anne R. Kapuscinski, Perry Hackett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


The β-actin-encoding gene (Act) in carp is regulated by several cis-acting regulatory elements including the evolutionarily conserved CC(A/T)6GG (CArG box or serum-response element) sequences positioned in the promoter region between the CAAT and TATA boxes and in the first intron. To address the roles of the two CArG boxes on gene expression, we replaced them with linker sequences. The CArG box in the proximal promoter was not required for promoter activity in tissue-cultured cells, but was required in conjunction with a second CArG box in the first intron to give full expression in transgenic embryos. Likewise, the geometry of cis-acting transcriptional elements in the proximal promoter was more important for expression of transgenic constructs in developing embryos than in tissue-cultured fibroblasts. Mobility-shift and exonuclease mapping experiments indicated that the same or similar protein factors bind around the two CArG boxes, suggesting that interactions between the promoter and the first intron are involved in Act regulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)211-217
Number of pages7
Issue number2
StatePublished - Dec 15 1991
Externally publishedYes


  • Recombinant DNA
  • carp
  • fish
  • promoter
  • transcriptional control of expression

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics


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