Immigrants and the distribution of resources within an urban school district

Amy Ellen Schwartz, Leanna Stiefel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


In New York City, where almost 14% of elementary school pupils are foreign-born and roughly half of these are "recent immigrants," the impact of immigrant students on school resources may be important. While immigrant advocates worry about inequitable treatment of immigrant students, others worry that immigrants drain resources from native-born students. In this article, we explore the variation in school resources and the relationship to the representation of immigrant students. To what extent are variations in school resources explained by the presence of immigrants per se rather than by differences in student educational needs, such as poverty or language skills, or differences in other characteristics, such as race? Our results indicate that, while schools resources decrease with the representation of immigrants, this relationship largely reflects differences in the educational needs of immigrant students. Although analyses that link resources to the representation of foreign-born students in 12 geographic regions of origin find some disparities, these are again largely driven by differences in educational need. Finally, we find that some resources increase over time when there are large increases in the percentage of immigrants in a school, but these results are less precisely estimated. Thus, elementary schools appear not to be biased either against or for immigrants per se, although differences in the needs of particular groups of immigrant students may lead to more (or fewer) school resources.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)303-327
Number of pages25
JournalEducational Evaluation and Policy Analysis
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Immigrants
  • Resources
  • Spending
  • Urban schools

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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