How prevalent is vitamin B12 deficiency among vegetarians?

Roman Pawlak, Scott James Parrott, Sudha Raj, Diana Cullum-Dugan, Debbie Lucus

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

102 Scopus citations

Abstract

Vegetarians are at risk for vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency due to suboptimal intake. The goal of the present literature review was to assess the rate of B12 depletion and deficiency among vegetarians and vegans. Using a PubMed search to identify relevant publications, 18 articles were found that reported B12 deficiency rates from studies that identified deficiency by measuring methylmalonic acid, holo-transcobalamin II, or both. The deficiency rates reported for specific populations were as follows: 62% among pregnant women, between 25% and almost 86% among children, 21-41% among adolescents, and 11-90% among the elderly. Higher rates of deficiency were reported among vegans compared with vegetarians and among individuals who had adhered to a vegetarian diet since birth compared with those who had adopted such a diet later in life. The main finding of this review is that vegetarians develop B12 depletion or deficiency regardless of demographic characteristics, place of residency, age, or type of vegetarian diet. Vegetarians should thus take preventive measures to ensure adequate intake of this vitamin, including regular consumption of supplements containing B12.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)110-117
Number of pages8
JournalNutrition Reviews
Volume71
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2013

Keywords

  • Cobalamin
  • Deficiency
  • Vegans
  • Vegetarians
  • Vitamin B

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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    Pawlak, R., Parrott, S. J., Raj, S., Cullum-Dugan, D., & Lucus, D. (2013). How prevalent is vitamin B12 deficiency among vegetarians? Nutrition Reviews, 71(2), 110-117. https://doi.org/10.1111/nure.12001