Highly efficient electron transport based on double-layered PC61BM in inverted perovskite solar cells

Enas M. Younes, Ashim Gurung, Behzad Bahrami, E. M. El-Maghraby, Quinn Qiao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Electron transport layer (ETL) plays a major role in determining performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). [6, 6]-phenyl C61butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) has been the preferred choice as the ETL in inverted PSCs. However, it has some drawbacks including current leakage, low mobility, and difficulty in full coverage of the perovskite layer with rough surface, resulting in charge recombination losses, charge leakage pathways and inefficient charge transfer at the perovskite/ETL, thus contributing to lower device efficiency and stability. For the first time, we introduce a simple strategy of implementing double-layered (DL) PC61BM as ETL to address the aforementioned challenges. The use of DL PC61BM particularly resulted in reinforced morphology of the ETL with reduced pin-holes and surface roughness compared to the single-layer (SL) PC61BM. This yielded increased electrical conductivity of the PC61BM, suppressed charge recombination, and facilitated higher number of charge generation, transfer/collection at the perovskite/PC61BM interface. Consequently, the DL PC61BM-based PSC delivered a considerable increase of power conversion efficiency (PCE) to 18.06%, which is much higher than the SL-based pristine PSC with 14.20%. Furthermore, the transition to DL from SL PC61BM exhibited longer ambient stability of the PSCs. This work can be easily adopted for other perovskite compositions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number106391
JournalOrganic Electronics
StatePublished - Jan 2022


  • Double-layered (DL) PCBM
  • Perovskite solar cell
  • Power conversion efficiency
  • Recombination
  • Stability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Biomaterials
  • General Chemistry
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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