Heterogeneity and cross section dependence in panel data models: Theory and applications introduction

Badi H. Baltagi, M. Hashem Pesaran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

198 Scopus citations


The papers included in this special issue are primarily concerned with the problem of cross section dependence and heterogeneity in the analysis of panel data models and their relevance in applied econometric research. Cross section dependence can arise due to spatial or spill over effects, or could be due to unobserved (or unobservable) common factors. Much of the recent research on non-stationary panel data have focussed on this problem. It was clear that the first generation panel unit root and cointegration tests developed in the 1990's, which assumed cross-sectional independence, are inadequate and could lead to significant size distortions in the presence of neglected cross-section dependence. Second generation panel unit root and cointegration tests that take account of possible cross-section dependence in the data have been developed, see the recent surveys by Choi (2006) and Breitung and Pesaran (2007). The papers by Baltagi, Bresson and Pirotte, Choi and Chue, Kapetanios, and Pesaran in this special issue are further contributions to this literature. The papers by Fachin, and Moon and Perron are empirical studies in this area. Controlling for heterogeneity has also been an important concern for empirical researchers with panel data methods promising better handle on heterogeneity than cross-section data methods. The papers by Hsiao, Shen, Wang and Weeks, Pedroni and Serlenga and Shin are empirical contributions to this area.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)229-232
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Applied Econometrics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Economics and Econometrics


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