Health resourcefulness behaviors: Implications of work-health resource trade-offs for the self-employed

Timothy L. Michaelis, Jon C. Carr, Alexander McKelvie, April Spivack, Michael P. Lerman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this paper, we present an exploratory study to investigate why those who are self-employed in the United States may make more personal health-related trade-offs than adults working in traditional wage-employment jobs. A random sample of 10,663 working adults in the United States indicate that the self-employed engage in higher amounts of health-related resourcefulness behaviors than wage employees (e.g., skipping medication to save money). We find that concerns over healthcare access and affordability serve as antecedents to health resourcefulness behaviors among all working adults, but that age moderates these relationships differently for the self-employed. Specifically, younger self-employed adults engage in health resourcefulness behaviors due to healthcare affordability concerns while older self-employed adults engage in such behaviors due to healthcare access concerns. In sum, we contribute to the entrepreneurial resourcefulness literature and well-being literature by highlighting data on how the self-employed make trade-offs with their personal health resources. We offer multiple directions for theory development, future research, and implications for healthcare policy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere00432
JournalJournal of Business Venturing Insights
StatePublished - Nov 2023


  • Health
  • Resourcefulness
  • Self-employed
  • Well-being

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Management of Technology and Innovation


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