Grayscale gel lithography for programmed buckling of non-Euclidean hydrogel plates

Jun Hee Na, Nakul P. Bende, Jinhye Bae, Christian D. Santangelo, Ryan C. Hayward

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Scopus citations


Shape programmable materials capable of morphing from a flat sheet into controlled three dimensional (3D) shapes offer promise in diverse areas including soft robotics, tunable optics, and bio-engineering. We describe a simple method of 'grayscale gel lithography' that relies on a digital micromirror array device (DMD) to control the dose of ultraviolet (UV) light, and therefore the extent of swelling of a photocrosslinkable poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAm) copolymer film, with micrometer-scale spatial resolution. This approach allows for effectively smooth profiles of swelling to be prescribed, enabling the preparation of buckled 3D shapes with programmed Gaussian curvature.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4985-4990
Number of pages6
JournalSoft Matter
Issue number22
StatePublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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