Grateful expectations: Cultural differences in the curvilinear association between age and gratitude

William J. Chopik, Rebekka Weidmann, Jeewon Oh, Mariah F. Purol

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Recent research suggests that the association between age and gratitude might be curvilinear—despite gratitude ostensibly being higher in middle-age, it might be lower in older adulthood. It is unclear if this curvilinear pattern of age differences in gratitude is found in other samples and whether its manifestation depends on contextual (i.e., national/cultural) characteristics. The current study examined cultural variation in the curvilinear effect of age on gratitude in a sample of over 4.5 million participants from 88 countries. Participants from countries with lower levels of human development, a shorter-term orientation, and higher levels of indulgence reported higher levels of gratitude. Cultural moderation effects were very small, suggesting that curvilinear effects of age on gratitude may be relatively comparable across cultures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3001-3014
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Social and Personal Relationships
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Hofstede’s cultural dimensions
  • age differences
  • cultural variation
  • curvilinear associations
  • gratitude

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Communication
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science


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