Recent findings indicate that glucose antagonizes several behavioral effects of cholinergic antagonists and augments those of cholinergic agonists. For example, scopolamine elicits increased locomotor activity, an action which is attenuated by glucose and by combined treatment with glucose and physostigmine at doses which are individually without effect. Opiate and catecholamine agonists, such as morphine and amphetamine, also elicit hyperactivity. The present study examined interactions of glucose and physostigmine with morphine- and amphetamine-induced hyperactivity. Mice received saline, morphine (10 mg/kg), or amphetamine (1 mg/kg) 50 min prior to testing, followed by saline, physostigmine (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, or 0.2 mg/kg), or glucose (10, 50, 100, or 500 mg/kg) administered 20 min prior to activity testing in an open field. Physostigmine significantly attenuated both morphine- and amphetamine-induced increases in activity, but higher doses were required to attenuate the effects of amphetamine. Like physostigmine, glucose significantly attenuated morphine-induced activity levels, but unlike physostigmine, glucose did not attenuate amphetamine-induced activity. Thus, the behavioral effects of morphine were more susceptible to modification by physostigmine and glucose than were the effects of amphetamine. The attenuation of morphine-induced hyperactivity demonstrates a similarity between glucose and cholinergic agonists, and also indicates that glucose may inhibit, directly or indirectly, opiate functions. More generally, these findings add to the evidence that circulating glucose levels selectively influence a growing list of behavioral and neurobiological functions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas