Functional Analysis of Elements Affecting Expression of the β-Actin Gene of Carp

Zhanjiang Liu, Boaz Moav, Anthony J. Faras, Kevin S. Guise, Anne R. Kapuscinski, Perry B. Hackett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

81 Scopus citations


Regulatory regions of the β-actin gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) have been examined by linking upstream, 5′-flanking sequences and regions of the first intron to a bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene. By analysis of the mRNA products and encoded CAT activity, we have identified four putative regions that influence expression: (i) a negative regulatory region 2,300 to 1,100 base pairs (bp) ahead of the gene; (ii) a proximal promoter element, containing the highly conserved CCAAT, CC(A/T)6GG, and TATA boxes that is within the first 204 bp upstream of the initiation site; (iii) a negative element of 426 bp in the 5′ the first intron; and (iv) a positive 304-bp element near the end of the first intron that contains highly conserved sequences found in all characterized β-actin genes. The positive intron element is not a classical enhancer; it is position and orientation dependent, as has been observed in other housekeeping genes in vertebrates. Depending on the elements joined together, CAT gene expression can be modulated more than 500-fold in transfected mouse cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3432-3440
Number of pages9
JournalMolecular and Cellular Biology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1990
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


Dive into the research topics of 'Functional Analysis of Elements Affecting Expression of the β-Actin Gene of Carp'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this