Fast Stereolithography Printing of Large-Scale Biocompatible Hydrogel Models

Nanditha Anandakrishnan, Hang Ye, Zipeng Guo, Zhaowei Chen, Kyle I. Mentkowski, Jennifer K. Lang, Nika Rajabian, Stelios T. Andreadis, Zhen Ma, Joseph A. Spernyak, Jonathan F. Lovell, Depeng Wang, Jun Xia, Chi Zhou, Ruogang Zhao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Scopus citations


Large size cell-laden hydrogel models hold great promise for tissue repair and organ transplantation, but their fabrication using 3D bioprinting is limited by the slow printing speed that can affect the part quality and the biological activity of the encapsulated cells. Here a fast hydrogel stereolithography printing (FLOAT) method is presented that allows the creation of a centimeter-sized, multiscale solid hydrogel model within minutes. Through precisely controlling the photopolymerization condition, low suction force-driven, high-velocity flow of the hydrogel prepolymer is established that supports the continuous replenishment of the prepolymer solution below the curing part and the nonstop part growth. The rapid printing of centimeter-sized hydrogel models using FLOAT is shown to significantly reduce the part deformation and cellular injury caused by the prolonged exposure to the environmental stresses in conventional 3D printing methods. Embedded vessel networks fabricated through multiscale printing allows media perfusion needed to maintain the high cellular viability and metabolic functions in the deep core of the large-sized models. The endothelialization of this vessel network allows the establishment of barrier functions. Together, these studies demonstrate a rapid 3D hydrogel printing method and represent a first step toward the fabrication of large-sized engineered tissue models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2002103
JournalAdvanced Healthcare Materials
Issue number10
StatePublished - May 19 2021


  • 3D bioprinting
  • continuous printing
  • endothelialization
  • hydrogels
  • stereolithography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Pharmaceutical Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Fast Stereolithography Printing of Large-Scale Biocompatible Hydrogel Models'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this