This investigation used a family systems perspective to examine how family dynamics within 3-generation households were associated with mothers' satisfaction with father involvement. The participants were low-income African American adolescent mothers (n = 148) and grandmothers recruited at delivery and followed over 6 months. The overall model explained 68% of the variance in satisfaction with father involvement. Fathers who were involved with caregiving activities had positive relationships with adolescent mothers and grandmothers. Grandmothers served as gatekeepers; when grandmothers reported positive relationships with the 2 young parents, adolescent mothers reported positive relationships with their male partners. Mothers who reported positive partner relationships also reported high parenting efficacy and satisfaction with father involvement. Efforts to increase paternal involvement should focus on role clarification for grandmothers and fathers and on parenting activities for mothers and fathers, regardless of their romantic relationship.
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