Factor structure of the socrates in a sample of primary care patients

Stephen A. Maisto, Joseph Conigliaro, Melissa McNeil, Kevin Kraemer, Monica O'Connor, Mary E. Kelley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Scopus citations


Motivation or readiness to change has been studied intensively in recent years in research on the use of brief interventions to change alcohol problems in the primary care setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure and concurrent and predictive evidence for validity of the short Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES), a 19-item self-report instrument developed to measure readiness to change alcohol problems in individuals presenting for specialized alcohol treatment. The participants were 210 men and 91 women who were identified as 'at-risk' drinkers in 13 community primary care clinics. These individuals completed the SOCRATES and a number of other assessments as part of a preintervention evaluation. A principal components analysis of the SOCRATES data revealed a two-factor structure; a confirmatory factor analysis showed that this structure was a better fit to the data than the three-factor structure that Miller and Tonigan (1996) identified for the SOCRATES. The two factors (9 and 6 items, respectively), seemed to measure perceived degree of severity of an existing alcohol problem (called 'Amrec' because it consisted of Miller and Tonigan's ambivalence and recognition items) and taking action to change or to maintain changes in one that exists (called 'Taking Steps'). Predictions of significant and nonsignificant correlations between the two derived factors and other baseline variables (alcohol consumption, related problems and symptoms, and demographic factors) generally were confirmed. In addition, baseline Amrec scores were related in predicted directions to 6- month alcohol consumption and related problems data, but the magnitude of these relationships were reduced when other variables that correlated with Amrec or when the 6-month data were taken into account. In general, Taking Steps showed little or no relationship to the 6-month data. The results are compared to previous work with the SOCRATES and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)879-892
Number of pages14
JournalAddictive Behaviors
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1999


  • Alcohol problems
  • Brief interventions
  • Factor structure
  • Primary care

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Toxicology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Factor structure of the socrates in a sample of primary care patients'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this