Extremum Seeking Control for Power Tracking via Functional Electrical Stimulation

Victor H. Duenas, Christian A. Cousin, Courtney A. Rouse, Warren E. Dixon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Motorized Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES)-cycling is a promising rehabilitative strategy for people possessing movement disorders as a result of neurological conditions. Cadence and torque (power) tracking objectives have been previously prescribed in FES-cycling to exploit the functional benefits of neuromuscular electric stimulation and produce intensive active therapy with motorized assistance. However, predetermined desired trajectories for either objective may yield sub-optimal training performance since the movement capacity of a person recovering from injury is unknown and time-varying. Hence, online adaptation is well-motivated to determine optimal cadence and torque trajectories. In this paper, an extremum seeking control (ESC) algorithm is implemented in real-time to compute the optimal cadence and torque trajectory (i.e., the peak torque demand) to maximize power output in an FES-cycling protocol. The uncertain, nonlinear FES-cycle system is an autonomous, state-dependent switched system to activate lower-limb muscles and an electric motor. Torque tracking is achieved by electrically stimulating the muscles via a learning controller and cadence tracking by engaging an electric motor. A passivity-based approach is utilized to analyze the stability of both tracking objectives.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)164-169
Number of pages6
Issue number34
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Extremum Seeking Control (ESC)
  • Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) Cycling
  • Passivity-Based Control
  • Repetitive Learning Control (RLC)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Extremum Seeking Control for Power Tracking via Functional Electrical Stimulation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this