Extreme events, energy security and equality through micro- and macro-levels: Concepts, challenges and methods

Chien fei Chen, Thomas Dietz, Nina H. Fefferman, Jamie Greig, Kristen Cetin, Caitlin Robinson, Laura Arpan, Marcel Schweiker, Bing Dong, Wenbo Wu, Yue Li, Hongyu Zhou, Jianzhong Wu, Jin Wen, Joshua S. Fu, Tianzhen Hong, Da Yan, Hannah Nelson, Yimin Zhu, Xueping LiLe Xie, Rachel Fu

Research output: Contribution to journalShort Survey Articlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Low-income households face long-standing challenges of energy insecurity and inequality (EII). During extreme events (e.g., disasters and pandemics) these challenges are especially severe for vulnerable populations reliant on energy for health, education, and well-being. However, many EII studies rarely incorporate the micro- and macro-perspectives of resilience and reliability of energy and internet infrastructure and social-psychological factors. To remedy this gap, we first address the impacts of extreme events on EII among vulnerable populations. Second, we evaluate the driving factors of EII and how they change during disasters. Third, we situate these inequalities within broader energy systems and pinpoint the importance of equitable infrastructure systems by examining infrastructure reliability and resilience and the role of renewable technologies. Then, we consider the factors influencing energy consumption, such as energy practices, socio-psychological factors, and internet access. Finally, we propose interdisciplinary research methods to study these issues during extreme events and provide recommendations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number102401
JournalEnergy Research and Social Science
StatePublished - Mar 2022


  • COVID-19
  • Disasters
  • Energy inequality
  • Energy insecurity
  • Energy justice
  • Resilience

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)


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