The solid-state landscape of carbamazepine during its dehydration was explored using Raman spectroscopy in the low- (−300 to −15, 15 to 300) and mid- (300 to 1800 cm−1) frequency spectral regions. Carbamazepine dihydrate and forms I, III, and IV were also characterized using density functional theory with periodic boundary conditions and showed good agreement with experimental Raman spectra with mean average deviations less than 10 cm−1. The dehydration of carbamazepine dihydrate was examined under different temperatures (40, 45, 50, 55, and 60 °C). Principal component analysis and multivariate curve resolution were used to explore the transformation pathways of different solid-state forms during the dehydration of carbamazepine dihydrate. The low-frequency Raman domain was able to detect the rapid growth and subsequent decline of carbamazepine form IV, which was not as effectively observed by mid-frequency Raman spectroscopy. These results showcased the potential benefits of low-frequency Raman spectroscopy for pharmaceutical process monitoring and control.
- THz Raman spectroscopy
- low-frequency Raman spectroscopy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmaceutical Science