Exploring Calcium Manganese Oxide as a Promising Cathode Material for Calcium-Ion Batteries

Paul Alexis Chando, Sihe Chen, Jacob Matthew Shellhamer, Elizabeth Wall, Xinlu Wang, Robson Schuarca, Manuel Smeu, Ian Dean Hosein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The dependence on lithium for the energy needs of the world, coupled with its scarcity, has prompted the exploration of postlithium alternatives. Calcium-ion batteries are one such possible alternative owing to their high energy density, similar reduction potential, and naturally higher abundance. A critical gap in calcium-ion batteries is the lack of suitable cathodes for intercalating calcium at high voltages and capacities while also maintaining structural stability. Transition metal oxide postspinels have been identified as having crystal structures that can provide low migration barriers, high voltages, and facile transport pathways for calcium ions and thus can serve as cathodes for calcium-ion batteries. However, experimental validation of transition metal oxide postspinel compounds for calcium ion conduction remains unexplored. In this work, calcium manganese oxide (CaMn2O4) in the postspinel phase is explored as an intercalation cathode for calcium-ion batteries. CaMn2O4 is first synthesized via solid-state synthesis, and the phase is verified with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The redox activity of the cathode is investigated with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic (GS) cycling, identifying oxidation potentials at 0.2 and 0.5 V and a broad insertion potential at −1.5 V. CaMn2O4 can cycle at a capacity of 52 mAh/g at a rate of C/33, and calcium cycling is verified with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and modeled with density functional theory (DFT) simulations. The results from the investigation concluded that CaMn2O4 is a promising cathode for calcium-ion batteries.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8371-8381
Number of pages11
JournalChemistry of Materials
Issue number20
StatePublished - Oct 24 2023
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


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