Expectation as a mediator in alcohol intoxication: A reference level model

Stephen A. Maisto, Gerard J. Connors, Paul R. Sachs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

57 Scopus citations


The application of the construct of expectation to human psychopharmacology and alcohol research is briefly reviewed. It is argued that application of Schachterian theory and its extensions in current models of alcohol and expectancy is inappropriate. Furthermore, current models are based only on a limited set of findings and thus have limited utility. A reference level model of alcohol intoxication is proposed as an alternative to current models of alcohol and expectancy. It is shown that the reference level model can lead to significant progress in understanding past work and in stimulating new research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-18
Number of pages18
JournalCognitive Therapy and Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1981
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology


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