Chemokines are a superfamily of cytokines responsible for regulating cell migration under both inflammatory and physiological conditions. CC chemokines are the largest subfamily of chemokines, with 28 members in humans. A subject of intense study in mammalian species, the known functional roles of CC chemokines ligands in both developmental and disease conditions continue to expand. They are also an important family for the study of gene copy number variation and tandem duplication in mammalian species. However, little is known regarding the evolutionary origin and status of these ligands in primitive vertebrates such as teleost fish. In this paper, we review the evolution of the teleost fish CC chemokine gene family, noting evidence of widespread tandem gene duplications and examining the implications of this phenomenon on immune diversity. Through extensive phylogenetic analysis of the CC chemokine sets of four teleost species, zebrafish, catfish, rainbow trout, and Atlantic salmon, we identified seven large groups of CC chemokines. It appeared that several major groups of CC chemokines are highly related including the CCL19/21/25 group, the CCL20 group, CCL27/28 group, and the fish-specific group. In the three remaining groups that contained the largest number of members, the CCL17/22 group, the MIP group, and the MCP group, similarities among species members were obscured by rapid, tandem duplications that may contribute to immune diversity.
- Gene duplication
ASJC Scopus subject areas