Evaluating the efficacy of zero-emission vehicle deployment strategies: The Maryland case

Zhenbao Wang, Sevgi Erdogan, Frederick W. Ducca

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This study aimed to develop a model to estimate the impacts of zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) adoption on CO2 emissions and to evaluate efficacy of ZEV deployment strategies in achieving greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction goals. We proposed a modeling scheme to represent ZEVs in four-step trip-based travel demand models. We then tested six ZEV scenarios that were a cross-combination of three ZEV ownership levels and two ZEV operating cost levels. The proposed modeling scheme and scenarios were implemented on the Maryland Statewide Transportation Model (MSTM) to analyze the impacts of different ZEV ownership and cost combinations on travel patterns and on CO2 emissions. The main findings were the following: (1) A high-ZEV ownership scenario (43.14% of households with ZEVs) could achieve about a 16% reduction in statewide carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2Eq) emissions from 2015 base year levels; and (2) CO2Eq emissions at a future year baseline (2030) (the Constrained Long-Range Plan) level dropped by approximately 11% in low-ZEV ownership scenarios, 17% in medium-ZEV ownership scenarios, and 32% in high-ZEV ownership scenarios. The high-ZEV ownership results also indicated a more balanced distribution of emissions per unit area or per vehicle mile traveled among different counties.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1750
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • GHG emission
  • Mode choice
  • Scenario analysis
  • Travel demand model
  • Zero-emission vehicles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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