Environmentally Friendly Plasma-Treated PEDOT:PSS as Electrodes for ITO-Free Perovskite Solar Cells

Bjorn Vaagensmith, Khan Mamun Reza, M. D.Nazmul Hasan, Hytham Elbohy, Nirmal Adhikari, Ashish Dubey, Nick Kantack, Eman Gaml, Qiquan Qiao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

76 Scopus citations


Solution processed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) transparent electrodes (TEs) offer great potential as a low cost alternative to expensive indium tin oxide (ITO). However, strong acids are typically used for enhancing the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS TEs, which produce processing complexity and environmental issues. This work presents an environmentally friendly acid free approach to enhance the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS using a light oxygen plasma treatment, in addition to solvent blend additives and post treatments. The plasma treatment was found to significantly reduce the sheet resistance of PEDOT:PSS TEs from 85 to as low as 15 ω sq-1, which translates to the highest reported conductivity of 5012 S/cm for PEDOT:PSS TEs. The plasma treated PEDOT:PSS TE resulted in an ITO-free perovskite solar cell efficiency of 10.5%, which is the highest reported efficiency for ITO-free perovskite solar cells with a PEDOT:PSS electrode that excludes the use of acid treatments. This research presents the first demonstration of this technology. Moreover, the PEDOT:PSS TEs enabled better charge extraction from the perovskite solar cells and reduced hysteresis in the current density-voltage (J-V) curves.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)35861-35870
Number of pages10
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number41
StatePublished - Oct 18 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • ITO-free
  • perovskite solar cells
  • solution processed
  • transparent electrodes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science


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