Environmental and biological controls on the diversity and ecology of Late Cretaceous through early Paleogene marine ecosystems in the U.S. Gulf Coastal Plain

Jocelyn A. Sessa, Timothy J. Bralower, Mark E. Patzkowsky, John C. Handley, Linda C Ivany

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The late Mesozoic through early Cenozoic is an interval of significant biologic turnover and ecologic reorganization within marine assemblages, but the timing and causes of these changes remain poorly understood. Here, we quantify the pattern and timing of shifts in the diversity (richness and evenness) and ecology of local (i.e., sample level) mollusk-dominated assemblages during this critical interval using field-collected and published data sets from the U.S. Gulf Coastal Plain. We test whether the biologic and ecologic patterns observed primarily at the global level during this time are also expressed at the local level, and whether the end-Cretaceous (K/Pg) mass extinction and recovery moderated these trends. To explore whether environment had any effect on these patterns, we examine data from shallow subtidal and offshore settings. Assemblages from both settings recovered to pre-extinction diversity levels rapidly, in less than 7 million years. Following initial recovery, diversity remained unchanged in both settings. The trajectory of ecological restructuring was distinct for each setting in the wake of the K/Pg extinction. In offshore assemblages, the abundance and number of predatory carnivorous taxa dramatically increased, and surficial sessile suspension feeders were replaced by more active suspension feeders. In contrast, shallow subtidal assemblages did not experience ecological reorganization following the K/Pg extinction. The distinct ecological patterns displayed in each environment follow onshore-offshore patterns of innovation, whereby evolutionary novelties first appear in onshore settings relative to offshore habitats. Increased predation pressure may explain the significant ecological restructuring of offshore assemblages, whereby the explosive radiation of predators drove changes in their prey. Habitat-specific ecological restructuring, and its occurrence solely during the recovery interval, implies that disturbance and incumbency were also key in mediating these ecological changes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)218-239
Number of pages22
JournalPaleobiology
Volume38
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2012

Fingerprint

coastal plains
Ecology
marine ecosystem
biological control
coastal plain
Paleogene
Ecosystem
Suspensions
extinction
Biological Extinction
ecology
Cretaceous
Mollusca
mass extinction
habitat
Radiation
Pressure
explosive
turnover
innovation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Palaeontology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Ecology

Cite this

Environmental and biological controls on the diversity and ecology of Late Cretaceous through early Paleogene marine ecosystems in the U.S. Gulf Coastal Plain. / Sessa, Jocelyn A.; Bralower, Timothy J.; Patzkowsky, Mark E.; Handley, John C.; Ivany, Linda C.

In: Paleobiology, Vol. 38, No. 2, 03.2012, p. 218-239.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sessa, Jocelyn A. ; Bralower, Timothy J. ; Patzkowsky, Mark E. ; Handley, John C. ; Ivany, Linda C. / Environmental and biological controls on the diversity and ecology of Late Cretaceous through early Paleogene marine ecosystems in the U.S. Gulf Coastal Plain. In: Paleobiology. 2012 ; Vol. 38, No. 2. pp. 218-239.
@article{984eed5c04694e71a3f11088e10ba10f,
title = "Environmental and biological controls on the diversity and ecology of Late Cretaceous through early Paleogene marine ecosystems in the U.S. Gulf Coastal Plain",
abstract = "The late Mesozoic through early Cenozoic is an interval of significant biologic turnover and ecologic reorganization within marine assemblages, but the timing and causes of these changes remain poorly understood. Here, we quantify the pattern and timing of shifts in the diversity (richness and evenness) and ecology of local (i.e., sample level) mollusk-dominated assemblages during this critical interval using field-collected and published data sets from the U.S. Gulf Coastal Plain. We test whether the biologic and ecologic patterns observed primarily at the global level during this time are also expressed at the local level, and whether the end-Cretaceous (K/Pg) mass extinction and recovery moderated these trends. To explore whether environment had any effect on these patterns, we examine data from shallow subtidal and offshore settings. Assemblages from both settings recovered to pre-extinction diversity levels rapidly, in less than 7 million years. Following initial recovery, diversity remained unchanged in both settings. The trajectory of ecological restructuring was distinct for each setting in the wake of the K/Pg extinction. In offshore assemblages, the abundance and number of predatory carnivorous taxa dramatically increased, and surficial sessile suspension feeders were replaced by more active suspension feeders. In contrast, shallow subtidal assemblages did not experience ecological reorganization following the K/Pg extinction. The distinct ecological patterns displayed in each environment follow onshore-offshore patterns of innovation, whereby evolutionary novelties first appear in onshore settings relative to offshore habitats. Increased predation pressure may explain the significant ecological restructuring of offshore assemblages, whereby the explosive radiation of predators drove changes in their prey. Habitat-specific ecological restructuring, and its occurrence solely during the recovery interval, implies that disturbance and incumbency were also key in mediating these ecological changes.",
author = "Sessa, {Jocelyn A.} and Bralower, {Timothy J.} and Patzkowsky, {Mark E.} and Handley, {John C.} and Ivany, {Linda C}",
year = "2012",
month = "3",
doi = "10.1666/10042.1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "38",
pages = "218--239",
journal = "Paleobiology",
issn = "0094-8373",
publisher = "Paleontological Society",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Environmental and biological controls on the diversity and ecology of Late Cretaceous through early Paleogene marine ecosystems in the U.S. Gulf Coastal Plain

AU - Sessa, Jocelyn A.

AU - Bralower, Timothy J.

AU - Patzkowsky, Mark E.

AU - Handley, John C.

AU - Ivany, Linda C

PY - 2012/3

Y1 - 2012/3

N2 - The late Mesozoic through early Cenozoic is an interval of significant biologic turnover and ecologic reorganization within marine assemblages, but the timing and causes of these changes remain poorly understood. Here, we quantify the pattern and timing of shifts in the diversity (richness and evenness) and ecology of local (i.e., sample level) mollusk-dominated assemblages during this critical interval using field-collected and published data sets from the U.S. Gulf Coastal Plain. We test whether the biologic and ecologic patterns observed primarily at the global level during this time are also expressed at the local level, and whether the end-Cretaceous (K/Pg) mass extinction and recovery moderated these trends. To explore whether environment had any effect on these patterns, we examine data from shallow subtidal and offshore settings. Assemblages from both settings recovered to pre-extinction diversity levels rapidly, in less than 7 million years. Following initial recovery, diversity remained unchanged in both settings. The trajectory of ecological restructuring was distinct for each setting in the wake of the K/Pg extinction. In offshore assemblages, the abundance and number of predatory carnivorous taxa dramatically increased, and surficial sessile suspension feeders were replaced by more active suspension feeders. In contrast, shallow subtidal assemblages did not experience ecological reorganization following the K/Pg extinction. The distinct ecological patterns displayed in each environment follow onshore-offshore patterns of innovation, whereby evolutionary novelties first appear in onshore settings relative to offshore habitats. Increased predation pressure may explain the significant ecological restructuring of offshore assemblages, whereby the explosive radiation of predators drove changes in their prey. Habitat-specific ecological restructuring, and its occurrence solely during the recovery interval, implies that disturbance and incumbency were also key in mediating these ecological changes.

AB - The late Mesozoic through early Cenozoic is an interval of significant biologic turnover and ecologic reorganization within marine assemblages, but the timing and causes of these changes remain poorly understood. Here, we quantify the pattern and timing of shifts in the diversity (richness and evenness) and ecology of local (i.e., sample level) mollusk-dominated assemblages during this critical interval using field-collected and published data sets from the U.S. Gulf Coastal Plain. We test whether the biologic and ecologic patterns observed primarily at the global level during this time are also expressed at the local level, and whether the end-Cretaceous (K/Pg) mass extinction and recovery moderated these trends. To explore whether environment had any effect on these patterns, we examine data from shallow subtidal and offshore settings. Assemblages from both settings recovered to pre-extinction diversity levels rapidly, in less than 7 million years. Following initial recovery, diversity remained unchanged in both settings. The trajectory of ecological restructuring was distinct for each setting in the wake of the K/Pg extinction. In offshore assemblages, the abundance and number of predatory carnivorous taxa dramatically increased, and surficial sessile suspension feeders were replaced by more active suspension feeders. In contrast, shallow subtidal assemblages did not experience ecological reorganization following the K/Pg extinction. The distinct ecological patterns displayed in each environment follow onshore-offshore patterns of innovation, whereby evolutionary novelties first appear in onshore settings relative to offshore habitats. Increased predation pressure may explain the significant ecological restructuring of offshore assemblages, whereby the explosive radiation of predators drove changes in their prey. Habitat-specific ecological restructuring, and its occurrence solely during the recovery interval, implies that disturbance and incumbency were also key in mediating these ecological changes.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84859563061&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84859563061&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1666/10042.1

DO - 10.1666/10042.1

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84859563061

VL - 38

SP - 218

EP - 239

JO - Paleobiology

JF - Paleobiology

SN - 0094-8373

IS - 2

ER -