Entrepreneurial processes in social contexts: How are they different, if at all?

G. T. Lumpkin, Todd W. Moss, David M. Gras, Shoko Kato, Alejandro S. Amezcua

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

285 Scopus citations


Scholars have compared and contrasted commercial and social entrepreneurship along a variety of dimensions, suggesting that entrepreneurial antecedents and outcomes differ within a social context. However, little is known about whether entrepreneurial processes differ within social contexts. In this paper, we ask to what extent the antecedents and outcomes that make social entrepreneurship unique influence entrepreneurial processes. Using an inputs-throughputs-outputs framework, we assess the relationship between four antecedents (social mission/motivation, opportunity identification, access to resources/funding, and multiple stakeholders) and three outcomes (social value creation, sustainable solutions, and satisfying multiple stakeholders) to the dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation (innovativeness, proactiveness, risk-taking, competitive aggressiveness, and autonomy) (Lumpkin and Dess, Acad Manag Rev 21(1):135-172, 1996). Our analysis suggests that many entrepreneurial processes remain essentially the same or are affected only slightly. However, autonomy, competitive aggressiveness, and risk-taking are influenced to some extent by the presence of multiple stakeholders and access to resources/funding. Entrepreneurial processes may also differ when applied to efforts to satisfy multiple stakeholders and achieve sustainable solutions. We subsequently discuss the implications of our analysis for future social entrepreneurship research and practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)761-783
Number of pages23
JournalSmall Business Economics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Apr 2013


  • Entrepreneurial orientation
  • Entrepreneurial processes
  • Social entrepreneurship

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Business, Management and Accounting
  • Economics and Econometrics


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