Enhanced release of norepinephrine in rat hippocampus during spontaneous alternation tests

Disheng Men, Richard McCarty, Paul E. Gold

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Recent evidence suggests that release of acetylcholine (ACh) in the hippocampus is associated with performance on a spontaneous alternation task and with enhancement of that performance by systemic and central injections of glucose. The present study extended these findings by examining norepinephrine (NE) release in the hippocampus using in vivo microdialysis while rats were tested for spontaneous alternation performance with and without prior injections (ip) of glucose. Microdialysis samples were collected every 12 min and assayed for NE content by HPLC-ECD. Like ACh, release in hippocampus increased during spontaneous alternation testing. As in past experiments, administration of glucose (250 mg/kg) significantly enhanced alternation scores. However, glucose did not influence NE release either during behavioral testing or at rest. These findings contrast with prior evidence showing that glucose augments testing-related increases in ACh release. The findings suggest that norepinephrine is released within the hippocampus while rats are engaged in alternation performance. However, increased release of norepinephrine apparently does not contribute to the enhancement of alternation scores produced by glucose.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)289-300
Number of pages12
JournalNeurobiology of Learning and Memory
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1999
Externally publishedYes


  • Behavior
  • Glucose
  • Hippocampus
  • Microdialysis
  • Norepinephrine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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