Energy-efficient design in heterogeneous cellular networks based on large-scale user behavior constraints

Yu Huang, Xing Zhang, Jiaxin Zhang, Jian Tang, Zhuowen Su, Wenbo Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


Large-scale user behavior can be used as the guidance for deployment, configuration, and service control in heterogeneous cellular networks (HCNs). However, in wireless networks, large-scale user behavior (in terms of traffic fluctuation in spatial domain) follows inhomogeneous distribution, which brings enormous challenges to energy-efficient design of HCNs. In this paper, the heterogeneity of large-scale user behavior is quantitatively characterized and exploited to study the energy efficiency (EE) in HCNs. An optimization problem is formulated for energy-efficient two-tier deployment and configuration, where the base station (BS) density, BS transmit power, BS static power, and quality of service are taken into account. We present closed-form formulas that establish the quantitative relationship between large-scale user behavior and energy-efficient HCN configuration. These results can be used to determine BS density and BS transmit power with the objective of achieving optimal EE. Furthermore, we present three energy-efficient control strategies of micro BSs, including micro BS sleep control, coverage expansion control, and coverage shrinking control. Simulation results validate our theoretical analysis and demonstrate that the proposed control strategies can potentially lead to significant power savings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6832633
Pages (from-to)4746-4757
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 2014


  • Heterogeneous cellular networks
  • energy efficiency
  • large-scale user behavior
  • resource management
  • traffic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Applied Mathematics


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