TY - JOUR

T1 - Energy-conserving Relativistic Corrections to Strong-shock Propagation

AU - Coughlin, Eric R.

N1 - Publisher Copyright:
© 2019. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..
Copyright:
Copyright 2019 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

PY - 2019/8/1

Y1 - 2019/8/1

N2 - Astrophysical explosions are accompanied by the propagation of a shockwave through an ambient medium. Depending on the mass and energy involved in the explosion, the shock velocity V can be nonrelativistic (V ≪ c, where c is the speed of light), ultrarelativistic (V ≃ c), or moderately relativistic (V ∼ few × 0.1c). While self-similar energy-conserving solutions to the fluid equations that describe the shock propagation are known in the nonrelativistic (the Sedov-Taylor blastwave) and ultrarelativistic (the Blandford-McKee blastwave) regimes, the finite speed of light violates scale invariance and self-similarity when the flow is only mildly relativistic. By treating relativistic terms as perturbations to the fluid equations, here we derive the , energy-conserving corrections to the nonrelativistic Sedov-Taylor solution for the propagation of a strong shock. We show that relativistic terms modify the post-shock fluid velocity, density, pressure, and the shock speed itself, the latter being constrained by global energy conservation. We derive these corrections for a range of post-shock adiabatic indices γ (which we set as a fixed number for the post-shock gas) and ambient power-law indices n, where the density of the ambient medium ρ a into which the shock advances declines with spherical radius r as ρ a ∝ r -n. For Sedov-Taylor blastwaves that terminate in a contact discontinuity with diverging density, we find that there is no relativistic correction to the Sedov-Taylor solution that simultaneously satisfies the fluid equations and conserves energy. These solutions have implications for relativistic supernovae, the transition from ultra- to subrelativistic velocities in gamma-ray bursts, and other high-energy phenomena.

AB - Astrophysical explosions are accompanied by the propagation of a shockwave through an ambient medium. Depending on the mass and energy involved in the explosion, the shock velocity V can be nonrelativistic (V ≪ c, where c is the speed of light), ultrarelativistic (V ≃ c), or moderately relativistic (V ∼ few × 0.1c). While self-similar energy-conserving solutions to the fluid equations that describe the shock propagation are known in the nonrelativistic (the Sedov-Taylor blastwave) and ultrarelativistic (the Blandford-McKee blastwave) regimes, the finite speed of light violates scale invariance and self-similarity when the flow is only mildly relativistic. By treating relativistic terms as perturbations to the fluid equations, here we derive the , energy-conserving corrections to the nonrelativistic Sedov-Taylor solution for the propagation of a strong shock. We show that relativistic terms modify the post-shock fluid velocity, density, pressure, and the shock speed itself, the latter being constrained by global energy conservation. We derive these corrections for a range of post-shock adiabatic indices γ (which we set as a fixed number for the post-shock gas) and ambient power-law indices n, where the density of the ambient medium ρ a into which the shock advances declines with spherical radius r as ρ a ∝ r -n. For Sedov-Taylor blastwaves that terminate in a contact discontinuity with diverging density, we find that there is no relativistic correction to the Sedov-Taylor solution that simultaneously satisfies the fluid equations and conserves energy. These solutions have implications for relativistic supernovae, the transition from ultra- to subrelativistic velocities in gamma-ray bursts, and other high-energy phenomena.

KW - gamma-ray burst: general

KW - hydrodynamics

KW - methods: analytical

KW - shock waves

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85071947012&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85071947012&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3847/1538-4357/ab29e6

DO - 10.3847/1538-4357/ab29e6

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85071947012

VL - 880

JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

SN - 0004-637X

IS - 2

M1 - 108

ER -